Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is used to separate metals from their ore. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in . Silver, copper, tin and meteoric iron can also be found in native form,.
Copper extraction refers to the methods used to obtaining copper from its ores. The conversion of copper consists of a series of chemical, physical, and electrochemical processes. Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source, local environmental regulations, and other factors. . The average grade of copper ores in the 21st century is below 0.6% copper,.